To some people, the word “housekeeping” calls to mind cleaning floors and surfaces, removing dust, and organizing clutter.
But in a work setting, it means much more. Housekeeping is crucial to safe workplaces. It can help prevent injuries and improve productivity and morale, as well as make a good first impression on visitors. It also can help an employer avoid potential fines for non-compliance.
The practice extends from traditional offices to industrial workplaces, including factories, warehouses and manufacturing plants that present special challenges such as hazardous materials, combustible dust and other flammables. Experts agree that all workplace safety programs should incorporate housekeeping, and every worker should play a part. In addition, housekeeping should have management’s commitment so workers realize its importance.
Prevent slips, trips and falls
Slips, trips and falls were the second leading cause of nonfatal occupational injuries or illnesses involving days away from work, according to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
OSHA’s Walking-Working Surfaces Standard (1910.22(a)) states that all workplaces should be “kept clean and orderly and in a sanitary condition.” The rule includes passageways, storerooms and service rooms. Floors should be clean and dry. Drainage should be present where “wet processes are used.”
Employers should select adequate flooring (e.g., cement, ceramic tile or another material), as different types of flooring hold up better under certain conditions. Then, develop and implement housekeeping procedures using appropriate cleaners. “Things like oils and grease – if you don’t use the right kind of cleaning protocols, you’ll just spread slipperiness around rather than getting it up and off the floor.
To help prevent slip, trip and fall incidents, we recommend the following:
Report and clean up spills and leaks.
Keep aisles and exits clear of items.
Consider installing mirrors and warning signs to help with blind spots.
Replace worn, ripped or damage flooring.
Consider installing anti-slip flooring in areas that can’t always be cleaned.
Use drip pans and guards.
In addition, provide mats, platforms, false floors or “other dry standing places” where useful, according to OSHA. Every workplace should be free of projecting nails, splinters, holes and loose boards.
Eliminate fire hazards
Employees are responsible for keeping unnecessary combustible materials from accumulating in the work area. Combustible waste should be “stored in covered metal receptacles and disposed of daily,” according to OSHA’s Hazardous Materials Standard (1910.106).
The National Safety Council “Supervisors’ Safety Manual” includes these precautionary measures for fire safety:
Keep combustible materials in the work area only in amounts needed for the job. When they are unneeded, move them to an assigned safe storage area.
Store quick-burning, flammable materials in designated locations away from ignition sources.
Avoid contaminating clothes with flammable liquids. Change clothes if contamination occurs.
Keep passageways and fire doors free of obstructions. Stairwell doors should be kept closed. Do not store items in stairwells.
Keep materials at least 18 inches away from automatic sprinklers, fire extinguishers and sprinkler controls. The 18-inch distance is required, but 24 to 36 inches is recommended. Clearance of 3 feet is required between piled material and the ceiling. If stock is piled more than 15 feet high, clearance should be doubled. Check applicable codes, including Life Safety Code, ANSI/NFPA 101-2009.
Hazards in electrical areas should be reported, and work orders should be issued to fix them.
Dust accumulation of more than 1/32 of an inch – or 0.8 millimeters – covering at least 5 percent of a room’s surface poses a significant explosion hazard. . This dust accumulation is about as thick as a dime or paper clip.
An industrial hygienist should test the workplace for exposures if air quality and dust are concerns.
NFPA 654 – a standard on preventing fire and dust explosions – addresses identifying hazard areas, controlling dust and housekeeping. The standard states that vacuuming is the “preferred” method of cleaning. Sweeping and water wash-down are other options. “Blow-downs” using compressed air or steam is allowed for inaccessible or unsafe surfaces.
Industrial vacuums can clean walls, ceilings, machinery and other places. You want to use wet methods or have high-efficiency vacuum systems. You don’t want to use just a shop vac or dry-sweep it – definitely not using compressed air to blow it. Then you’re just re-suspending the dust and distributing it all over.
Avoid tracking materials
Work-area mats – which can be cloth or sticky-topped – should be kept clean and maintained. This helps prevent the spread of hazardous materials to other work areas or home, Gray said. Check all mats to ensure they are not tripping hazards.
Additionally, separate cleaning protocols may be needed for different areas to prevent cross-contamination. Avoid using the same mop to clean both an oily spill and in another area, for example. If the materials are toxic, industrial hygiene testing, uniforms and showering facilities might be needed. Employees who work with toxic materials should not wear their work clothes home.
Prevent falling objects
Protections such as a toe board, toe rail or net can help prevent objects from falling and hitting workers or equipment. Other tips include stacking boxes and materials straight up and down to keep them from falling. Place heavy objects on lower shelves, and keep equipment away from the edges of desks and tables. Also, refrain from stacking objects in areas where workers walk, including aisles.
Keep layout in mind so workers are not exposed to hazards as they walk through areas.
A cluttered workplace can lead to ergonomics issues and possible injuries because workers have less space to move. When an area is cluttered, you’re going to likely have a cut or laceration injury. You’re not going to have as much room to set up your workstation like you should and move around. You’re going to be twisting your body rather than moving your whole body. The Ohio Bureau of Workers’ Compensation recommends that workers return tools and other materials to storage after using them, and dispose of materials that are no longer needed.
Keep aisles, stairways, emergency exits, electrical panels and doors clear of clutter, and purge untidy areas. Empty trash receptacles before they overflow.